Unilateral Inheritance Tax Relief in British-German Probate Matters
If a legator was domiciled (or legally deemed to be domiciled) in the UK and possessed assets in other countries, then HMRC will levy inheritance tax on the entire estate, i.e. all assets worldwide (see here).
The problem is: Other jurisdictions may employ an entirely different inheritance tax system and also demand inheritance tax. Germany, for example, does not use domicile but citizenship (nationality) and residency to determine where the (global) assets of the deceased shall be taxed (details here). Therefore, it may well happen that two countries claim national inheritance tax in regard to the same assets. Could combined inheritance tax dues even be higher than the estate?
With some few countries (see here), the UK has double taxation conventions (see here), but with the rest of the world, including Germany, the UK does not. Thus, what happens if the German tax authorities demand inheritance tax on the assets in Germany and HMRC does as well. This could result in the taxes eating up the entire estate.
Don’t forget to apply for unilateral tax relief!
To avoid this, the beneficiaries (in the UK) and heirs (in Germany) should apply for unilateral inheritance tax relief. By doing this, there may be a chance to reduce UK IHT. To be granted unilateral relief you must provide evidence of the foreign tax, in the form of an assessment of the foreign tax, a certificate of the foreign tax paid and (if available) the official receipt. HMRC asks you to enclose with form IHT400 a ‘certificate of tax paid’ from the overseas tax authority (see line 28, page 25 of IHT400-Integrated). The technicalities are complicated since unilateral relief is only granted in regard to the foreign assets. The form “Schedule IHT417 – Foreign Assets” states in the explanatory notes: “Double taxation relief: Tax that is similar to Inheritance Tax has been paid on an asset in another country, you may be able to deduct double taxation relief. The form IHT400 Calculation will show you howto work out the double taxation relief.”
However, Germany, for example will tax not only foreign assets but will actually also tax the the global estate, just like the UK does. So the German tax receipt will encompass more than just the tax on German assets. Also, German tax authorities will ask for the “gobal net estate” which you can only give after you have provided HMRC with the net asset woth, i.e. after deducting German inheritance tax as unilateral relief. A classic vicious circle. In practice you will have to ask either German or UK tax authorities to calculate taxes on a theoretical basis.
Our law firm Graf & Partners was established in 2003 and has many years of experience with British-German probate matters. If you wish us to advise or represent you in a German or cross border inheritance case we will send you a comprehensive questionnaire which also explains which documents you will need to submit, e.g. birth, death and marriage certificates, wills, foreign grants of probate etc.
For more information on German-British probate matters and international will preparation see the below posts by the international succession law experts of Graf & Partners LLP:
- Most Germans die without a Will (German Intestacy Rules)
- Formal Requirements to set up a valid Will in England, Scotland and Germany: What are the Differences?
- The Perils of German IHT and Gift Tax
- Careful with Deed of Variation if Estate comprises Foreign Assets
- Basics of German Inheritance and Succession Law
- Executors and Trustees in German Inheritance Law
- How to apply for a German Grant of Probate
- The Infamous German Community of Heirs – And how to avoid it
- Germans Heirs are Personally Liable for Debts of the Deceased
- International Wills and Estate Planning for British-German Families
- Prove German Wills for English Probate
- Disputed Wills and Contentious Probate in Germany
- Disinherit your no-good children? Not so easy in Germany
- Don’t be afraid of Clients with Foreign Assets!
- Can foreign Taxes be set off against UK Inheritance Tax?
Or simply enter “probate” or “inheritance” in the search box above.
The law firm Graf & Partners and its German-English litigation department GP Chambers was established in 2003 and has many years of experience with British-German and US-German probate matters, including the representation of clients in contentious probate matters. We are experts ininternational succession matters, probate and inheritance law, including international litigation. If you wish us to advise or represent you in a German or cross border inheritance case please contact German solicitor Bernhard Schmeilzl, LL.M. (Leicester) at +49 941 463 7070.